Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) is an essential component for solar cells and other devices such as displays, currently indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver are the prevailing choices. ITO and silver are however expensive. ITO has limited supply, and tends to degrade in performance under stress, so ITO-replacement TCEs have attracted extensive interests in the past years. Promising possible replacements include less expensive transparent conductive oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNT) or graphene-based thin films, conductive polymers, and metal grids based TCEs. This consortium aims to develop low cost and superior, sustainable Cu nanowires based TCE for solar cells, and explore its application to other devices.